Cloning vectors are plasmids (extrachromosomal circular DNA molecules that replicate independently of nuclear DNA) that carry inserted DNA fragments, typically a gene, that we want to introduce or express in the host. In order to be inserted, it is necessary to cut the vector with restriction enzymes and once it is introduced it is renamed: recombinant vector.
There are multiple systems to carry out the process, however, all of them vary depending on the specificity of the cell or the size of the insert.
The transformation consists of the introduction of genetic material into bacteria thanks to the use of plasmids in which the desired genetic material has been inserted.
The basic elements that a plasmid must consist of are an origin of replication, which provides it with its own autonomy independent of nuclear DNA, and a gene for resistance to an antibiotic, which allows the transformed bacteria to be selected from others that do not.
They are. Furthermore, the presence of a reporter gene in the plasmid can be used to corroborate and visualize the transcription of the plasmid. However, it must be taken into account that the acquisition of the material will often depend on the culture conditions: pH, cell density of the culture, temperature, nutrients.
Transfection consists of the introduction of foreign genetic material into eukaryotic cells using plasmids, viral vectors (transduction), or other tools. These techniques are carried out by opening pores in the cell membrane (electroporation) or by means of liposomes that are obtained by mixing the genetic material with cationic lipids.
Invivogen offers you a large collection of vectors designed for different applications. These vectors are plasmids that provide a high level of expression both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, they have a wide variety of markers to be used both in E.Coli and in mammalian cells.